In July and September, Albania suffered two cyberattacks attributed by the U.S. to Iranian state cyber actors. But Albania is not Iran’s first victim. Among the world’s cyber powers, the Iranians have been among the most aggressive in using hacking for coercion. And while still relatively unskilled, Iran is a dangerous cyber actor.
Many analysts expected Russia’s invasion of Ukraine to include a cyber Armageddon as part of the conflict. So when those expectations didn’t materialize, the initial surprise quickly turned into declarations that Ukraine had won the “cyber war.” But it’s still possible that Moscow will turn up the dial on its cyber operations.