Leased Sub Key to India’s Naval Modernization

India recently inducted a leased Russian Akula-class nuclear submarine into its naval fleet, rechristening it Indian Navy Ship (INS) Chakra. This will be the Indian navy’s second such stint with a submersible nuclear vessel: In 1987, India leased a Charlie-class nuclear submarine for three years from the Soviet Union. The INS Chakra, known in the Russian navy as the K-152 Nerpa, was initially conceived in the early 1990s under Russia’s Project 971 M Shchuka-B class nuclear-powered submarine program. Though the keel of the submarine was laid in 1993, the project was delayed due to Russia’s economic hardships after the Cold […]

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