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Peruvian police officers stand guard in a recovered area deforested by illegal gold mining in Peru. Peruvian police officers stand guard in a recovered area deforested by illegal gold mining in the Madre de Dios province of Peru, Feb. 19, 2019 (pool photo by Cris Bouroncle via AP Images).

Oil, Energy and Mining in International Politics

Monday, Nov. 22, 2021

Despite concerns over the environmental impact of industrial mining and the contribution that fossil fuels make to global warming, resource extraction continues to be a major source of revenue for both developing countries and wealthier nations alike. In fact, the amount of resources being pulled from the earth has tripled since 1970, though the global population has only doubled in that time.

Global efforts to reduce carbon emissions as part of climate change diplomacy notwithstanding, fossil fuels remain among the most prized extractives, for a simple reason: Global demand combined with the wealth they generate have historically given some countries, including members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, outsized global influence.

The lucrative contracts associated with the extractive sector help to explain why resource extraction remains central to many developing countries’ strategy to grow their economies. But the windfalls don’t come without risks, most prominent among them being the “resource curse” that can plague countries that fail to diversify their economies to generate alternate sources of revenue. Corruption can also thrive, especially when government institutions are weak. When the wealth generated from resource extraction isn’t fairly distributed, it can entrench a permanent elite, as in Saudi Arabia, or fuel persistent conflicts, as in the Democratic Republic of Congo. And the environmental damage caused by the extractive industries has decimated local communities and driven social protest movements around the world.

The environmental impact of fossil fuels, particularly with regard to climate change, is driving some changes, in particular a push to develop renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar. But the transition to renewable energy sources is slow to develop, even as its long-term financial viability remains uncertain.

WPR has covered a broad range of issues regarding energy and resource extraction, and continues to examine key questions about future developments. Will renewable energy sources eventually overtake fossil fuels? Or, as countries begin to transition away from more heavily criticized energy sources, like coal, will they replace them with other fossil fuels, like natural gas? Will the coronavirus pandemic have a long-term impact on global oil and commodities markets? Below are some of the highlights of WPR’s coverage.

Our Most Recent Coverage

How Europe Maneuvered Itself Into an Energy Crisis

For many years, Europe hoped to use geoeconomics tools to regulate and blunt Russia’s geopolitical ambitions, mainly through ambitious natural gas pipeline projects. Today’s energy crisis, though, suggest that the gambles Europe made in its attempts to manage Russia have not panned out.


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Resource-Based Development

Many developing countries see resource extraction as a path to growing the economy and improving livelihoods. But experts argue that extraction must be part of a broader plan for how and where to invest resources, bolstered by transparent reporting and governance systems, if it is to be an effective development strategy.

The Resource Curse

Resource extraction can go from a blessing to a curse when it fuels corruption or entrenches an elite, robbing citizens of the financial benefits while causing environmental damage. Countries that fail to diversify their revenue sources also risk an economic collapse and social unrest when the resource becomes scarce or global prices drop.

Oil and OPEC

Though OPEC still retains significant influence, its power is waning. The growth of the United States as an oil-exporting country and the rise of renewable energy have chipped away at its control over the energy market. And now the coronavirus pandemic has flattened demand and clouded the oil sector’s already uncertain future.


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The Human and Environmental Costs

The wealth produced by the extractive industries comes at great cost, both to local communities and the environment. Despite initiatives to boost transparency, involve affected communities in planning and minimize environmental impact, mining projects continue to drive social conflict and cause serious injustices.

Infrastructure and the Global Energy Market

In addition to generating lucrative business deals, the global energy market also shapes international diplomacy. Oil and gas pipelines serve as infrastructure physically joining participating countries, while nuclear energy deals can create industrial and scientific partnerships that span a generation. Meanwhile, competition for markets can also fuel strategic competition and conflict.

Illegal and Informal Mining

Globally, illegal mining has become a major social and environmental concern. In the Amazon, researchers describe illegal mining for gold as an “epidemic,” encroaching on indigenous communities and destroying vast swathes of the rainforest. The efforts are often funded by organized crime or major industries, who recruit local workers but do not offer them the training or protection formal mining industries do.


[SPECIAL OFFER: Want to learn more? Get full access to World Politics Review for 30 days for just $1 and read all the articles linked here to get up to speed on this important issue.]

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Editor’s note: This article was originally published in June 2019 and is regularly updated.