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The Laziska coal-fired power plant near Katowice, Poland, where the U.N. climate change conference was held. The Laziska coal-fired power plant near Katowice, Poland, where the U.N. climate change conference is being held, Dec. 12, 2018 (Photo by Monika Skolimowska for dpa via AP Images).

The Uneven Global Response to Climate Change

Wednesday, March 17, 2021

Recently published climate science ultimately underscores the same points: The impacts of climate change are advancing faster than experts had previously predicted, and they are increasingly irreversible. One blockbuster report, from a United Nations grouping of biodiversity experts in May 2019, found that 1 million species are now in danger of extinction unless dramatic changes are made to everything from fuel sources to agricultural production. Despite these warnings, however, scientists confirm that the world remains on pace to blow past the goal of restricting warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, likely with catastrophic consequences.

Persistent climate skepticism from key global figures, motivated in part by national economic interests, is slowing diplomatic efforts to systematically address the drivers of climate change. In particular, former U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to pull out of the Paris climate agreement upon taking office immediately undermined the pact. Despite these hurdles, negotiators made substantive progress during a U.N. climate change conference in December 2018, putting in place an ambitious system of monitoring and reporting on carbon emissions for nations that remain part of the agreement. But the latest round of talks in December 2019 ended in abject failure, and the coronavirus pandemic hobbled further diplomatic efforts in 2020.

The Paris agreement has nevertheless proved more resilient than many initially feared after the U.S. withdrawal. The European Union, Japan and South Korea all pledged to achieve carbon-neutral economies by 2050; China announced a target of achieving carbon neutrality by 2060. And in one of his first moves upon taking office, President Joe Biden issued an executive order returning the U.S. to the Paris agreement. He has further signaled his commitment to high-level climate diplomacy by naming former Secretary of State John Kerry as his climate envoy.

Whether renewed American leadership on the issue will be enough to break through some of the obstacles facing climate diplomacy remains to be seen. In the meantime, frustration with the slow progress and persistent challenges toward achieving increasingly urgent targets has spurred newfound activism, particularly among young people. The Fridays for Future movement, with its coordinated student walkouts to demand action on climate change, has become the face of this wave of protests and may prove a political threat to parties that downplay climate action. The gains made by Green parties in the European Parliament elections in May 2019, as well as in a series of national and local elections in Europe since then, show just how potent a voting issue climate change can be.

WPR has covered climate change in detail and continues to examine key questions about what will happen next. Will Fridays for Future upend existing political orders and usher in new, climate-focused leaders? Will climate-friendly initiatives feature prominently in post-pandemic economic recovery plans? And will the Biden administration’s climate diplomacy have a meaningful impact? Below are some of the highlights of WPR's coverage.

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After the Fires: Australia’s Reckoning on Climate Change

Last year’s season of bushfires in Australia was the first major disaster intensified by climate change to tear into a wealthy, predominantly white, carbon-exporting country. But despite its devastating toll, the country’s role in both supplying and burning fossil fuels hasn’t changed at all.


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Climate Change Politics and Diplomacy

The global political effort to address climate change moved ahead, despite the United States’ withdrawal from the Paris agreement under Trump. But it is unclear if global leaders will ever agree to measures that rise to the level of what is needed. Success hinges particularly on the continued participation of major emitters, including India and China, which is not a guarantee. The effort will receive a much-needed boost now that Biden has moved quickly on recommitting U.S. leadership and resources to the effort. But whether the U.S. and the world will match words with actions remains uncertain, especially amid the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.

Impact, Mitigation and Adaptation

The developing world is actually leading the way on mitigation and adaption efforts. Morocco has invested heavily in solar power. India has implemented a moratorium on any new coal plants. And Uruguay’s transition to renewables can serve as a global model. It’s no surprise that some of the most ambitious mitigation and adaptation efforts are coming from countries that are most immediately menaced by the effects of climate change. But those efforts are often constrained by limited resources and the unwillingness, for now, of developed countries to help fund them.


[SPECIAL OFFER: Want to learn more? Get full access to World Politics Review for 12 weeks for just $12 and read all the articles linked here to get up to speed on this important issue.]


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At the outset of the Biden presidency, we are covering how myriad aspects of U.S. foreign policy are changing under the new administration. While Biden will undoubtedly repudiate Trump’s approach, which was itself a radical break from U.S. foreign policy traditions, it’s unclear whether a restoration of the United States global role is even possible. What immediate challenges will the Biden administration confront? And how will he successfully pivot policy in key areas? This report is just a sampling of our coverage so far of U.S. foreign policy under Biden. Download your FREE copy of U.S. Foreign Policy Under Biden to learn more today.

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As the Biden administration takes over, the world is experiencing a sort of whiplash, as the United States performs a second about-face in its posture toward multilateralism in only four years. Although the U.S. has oscillated through cycles of internationalism and isolationism before, it has never executed such a swift and dramatic double-reverse. The Biden administration will repudiate the “America First” platform on which Donald Trump won the White House in 2016, and the hyper-nationalist, unilateralist and sovereigntist mindset that undergirds it. Such a stunning shift in America’s global orientation would have major implications for global cooperation on everything from climate change, health and nuclear proliferation to trade and human rights, as well as for U.S. relations with its Western allies.

The stage is set, in other words, for a massive reorientation in U.S. foreign policy. It remains to be seen if Trumpism will remain a potent political force, shaping Republican attitudes around foreign policy for years to come.

Download U.S. Foreign Policy Under Biden today to take a deeper look at these trends and get a glimpse at what the future may hold.

In this report, you will learn:

  • What Biden's presidency will mean for the future of multilateralism
  • What is in store for U.S. policy on human rights
  • How the new Nuclear Weapons Ban treaty will be an early trial for Biden
  • What Biden's policy toward North Korea is likely to look like
  • Whether Turkey's frayed ties with the West are likely to improve under Biden
  • How the Biden administration may try to clean up the mess in Afghanistan
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Editor’s note: This article was originally published in June 2019 and is regularly updated.