In May, France and the U.K. ratified the Defense and Security Cooperation Treaty, marking a major realignment of the countries' post-financial crisis defense policies. In an email interview, Jolyon Howorth, an expert in European defense policy at Yale University, discussed the U.K.-France defense treaty.
WPR: What are the main provisions of the treaty?
Jolyon Howorth: The treaty aims to maximize the military potential of the two countries in terms of capacity, procurement and deployment. It envisages the development of a joint expeditionary force with land and naval elements; an integrated aircraft-carrier group allowing planes from each country to land on the other's carriers; joint computer-modeling facilities for nuclear warheads; industrial cooperation on unmanned aircraft, submarine technologies and satellite communications; common servicing for tanker and transport aircraft; and mutual penetration of the two countries' defense industrial base.